Technical Data Stainless Steel
Chromium-Nickel Types 302 (S30200), 304 (S30400), 304L (S30403), 305 (S30500)
GENERAL PROPERTIES Allegheny Ludlum Types 302 (S30200), 304 (S30400), 304L (S30403), and 305 (S30500) stainless steels are variations of the 18 percent chromium – 8 percent nickel austenitic alloy, the most familiar and most frequently used alloy in the stainless steel family. These alloys may be considered for a wide variety of applications where one or more of the following properties are important:
1. Resistance to corrosion
2. Prevention of product contamination
3. Resistance to oxidation
4. Ease of fabrication
5. Excellent formability
6. Beauty of appearance
7. Ease of cleaning
8. High strength with low weight
9. Good strength and toughness at cryogenic temperatures
10. Ready availability of a wide range of product forms
Each alloy represents an excellent combination of corrosion resistance and fabricability. This combination of properties is the reason for the extensive use of these alloys which represent nearly one half of the total U.S. stainless steel production. Type 304 represents the largest volume followed by Type 304L. Types 302 and 305 are used in smaller quantities. The 18-8 stainless steels, principally Types 304 and 304L, are available in a wide range of product forms including sheet, strip, foil and plate from Allegheny Ludlum. The alloys are covered by a variety of specifications and codes relating to, or regulating, construction or use of equipment manufactured from these alloys for specific conditions. Food and beverage, sanitary, cryogenic, and pressure-containing applications are examples. Past users of Type 302 are generally now using Type 304 since AOD technology has made lower carbon levels more easily attainable and economical. There are instances, such as in temper rolled products, when Type 302 is preferred over Type 304 since the higher carbon permits meeting of yield and tensile strength requirements while maintaining a higher level of ductility (elongation) versus that of the lower carbon T304. Type 304L is used for welded products which might be exposed to conditions which could cause intergranular corrosion in service. Type 305 is used for applications requiring a low rate of work hardening during severe cold forming operations such as deep drawing. Other less frequently specified 18-8 stainless steel grades, such as Type 304N (S30451) and Type 304LN (S30453)
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Chemistries per ASTM A240 and ASME SA-240: Percentage by Weight Maximum Unless Range is Specified 302 304 304L 305 Carbon 0.15 0.08 0.030 0.12 Manganese 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 Phosphorus 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 Sulfur 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 Silicon 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 Chromium 17.00 18.00 18.00 17.00 19.00 20.00 20.00 19.00 Nickel 8.00 8.00 8.00 10.50 10.00 10.50 12.00 13.00 Nitrogen 0.10 0.10 0.10 -- Element Data are typical and should not be construed as maximum or minimum values for specification or for final design. Data on any particular piece of material may vary from those shown herein.
RESISTANCE TO CORROSION General Corrosion The Types 302, 304, 304L and 305 austenitic stainless steels provide useful resistance to corrosion on a wide range of moderately oxidizing to moderately reducing environments. The alloys are used widely in equipment and utensils for processing and handling of food, beverages and dairy products. Heat exchangers, piping, tanks and other process equipment in contact with fresh water also utilize these alloys. Building facades and other architectural and structural applications exposed to non-marine atmospheres also heavily utilize the 18-8 alloys. In addition, a large variety of applications involve household and industrial chemicals. The 18 to 19 percent of chromium which these alloys contain provides resistance to oxidizing environments such as dilute nitric acid, as illustrated by data for Type 304 below. Other laboratory data for Types 304 and 304L in the table below illustrate that these alloys are also resistant to moderately aggressive organic acids such as acetic, and reducing acids such as phosphoric. The 9 to 11 percent of nickel contained by these 18-8 alloys assists in providing resistance to moderately reducing environments. The more highly reducing environments such as boiling dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acids are shown to be too aggressive for these materials. Boiling 50 percent caustic is likewise too aggressive. *Autogenous weld on base metal sample. **Types 302 and 305 exhibit similar performance. 20% Acetic Acid, Base Metal 0.1 (<0.01) 0.1 (<0.01) Welded* 1.0 (0.03) 0.1 (<0.01) 45% Formic Acid, Base Metal 55 (1.4) 15 (0.4) Welded* 52 (1.3) 19 (0.5) 10% Sulfamic Acid, Base Metal 144 (3.7) 50 (1.3) Welded* 144 (3.7) 57 (1.4) 1% Hydrochloric, Base Metal 98 (2.5) 85 (2.2) Welded 112 (2.8) 143 (3.6) 20% Phosphoric Acid, Base Metal <1.0 (<0.03) -- -- Welded <1.0 (<0.03) -- -- 65% Nitric Acid, Base Metal 9.2 (0.2) 8.9 (0.2) Welded 9.4 (0.2) 7.4 (0.2) 10% Sulfuric Acid, Base Metal 445 (11.3) 662 (16.8) Welded 494 (12.5) 879 (22.3) 50% Sodium Hydroxide, Base Metal 118 (3.0) 71 (1.8) Welded 130 (3.3) 87 (2.2) General Corrosion in Boiling Chemicals Corrosion Rate, Mils/Yr (mm/a) Boiling Environment Type 304** Type 304L % Nitric Acid Temperature °F (°C) Corrosion Rate Mils/Yr (mm/a) 10 300 (149) 5.0 (0.13) 20 300 (149) 10.1 (0.25) 30 300 (149) 17.0 (0.43) Technical Data BLUE SHEET Data are typical and should not be construed as maximum or minimum values for specification or for final design. Data on any particular piece of material may vary from those shown herein. 3 In some cases, the low carbon Type 304L alloy may show a lower corrosion rate than the higher carbon Type 304 alloy. The data for formic acid, sulfamic acid and sodium hydroxide illustrate this. Otherwise, the Types 302, 304, 304L and 305 alloys may be considered to perform equally in most corrosive environments. A notable exception is in environments sufficiently corrosive to cause intergranular corrosion of welds and heat-affected zones on susceptible alloys. The Type 304L alloy is preferred for use in such media in the welded condition since the low carbon level enhances resistance to intergranular corrosion. Intergranular Corrosion Exposure of the 18-8 austenitic stainless steels to temperatures in the 800°F to 1500°F (427°C to 816°C) range may cause precipitation of chromium carbides in grain boundaries. Such steels are “sensitized” and subject to intergranular corrosion when exposed to aggressive environments. The carbon content of Types 302, 304, and 305 may allow sensitization to occur from thermal conditions experienced by autogenous welds and heat-affected zones of welds. For this reason, the low carbon Type 304L alloy is preferred for applications in which the material is put into service in the as-welded condition. Low carbon content extends the time necessary to precipitate a harmful level of chromium carbides, but does not eliminate the precipitation reaction for material held for long times in the precipitation temperature range. Stress Corrosion Cracking The Type 302, 304, 304L and 305 alloys are the most susceptible of the austenitic stainless steels to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in halides because of their relatively low nickel content. Conditions which cause SCC are: (1) presence of halide ions (generally chloride), (2) residual tensile stresses, and (3) temperatures in excess of about 120°F (49°C). Stresses may result from cold deformation of the alloy during forming, or by roller expanding tubes into tubesheets, or by welding operations which produce stresses from the thermal cycles used. Stress levels may be reduced by annealing or stress relieving heat treatments following cold deformation, thereby reducing sensitivity to halide SCC. The low carbon Type 304L material is the better choice for service in the stress relieved condition in environments which might cause intergranular corrosion. 42% Magnesium Base Metal Cracked, 1 to 20 hours Chloride, Boiling Welded Cracked, ½ to 21 hours 33% Lithium Base Metal Cracked, 24 to 96 hours Chloride, Boiling Welded Cracked, 18 to 90 hours 26% Sodium Base Metal Cracked, 142 to 1004 hours Chloride, Boiling Welded Cracked, 300 to 500 hours 40% Calcium Base Metal Cracked, 144 Hours Chloride, Boiling -- Ambient Base Metal No Cracking Temperature Seacoast Exposure Welded No Cracking U-Bend (Highly Stressed) Samples Halide (Chloride) Stress Corrosion Tests Test 302, 304, 304L, 305 Intergranular Corrosion Tests Corrosion Rate, Mils/Yr (mm/a) 302, 304, 305 304L ASTM A 262 Evaluation Test Practice B Base Metal Welded Practice E Base Metal Welded Practice A Base Metal Welded 20 (0.5) 23 (0.6) No Fissures on Bend Some Fissures on Weld (unacceptable) Step Structure Ditched (unacceptable) 20 (0.5) 20 (0.5) No Fissures No Fissures Step Structure Step Structure Intergranular Corrosion Data are typical and should not be construed as maximum or minimum values for specification or for final design. Data on any particular piece of material may vary from those shown herein. 4 Stainless Steel Visit our Website at Types 302, 304, 304L, 305 The above data illustrate that various hot chloride solutions may cause failure after differing lengths of time. The important thing to note is that failure eventually occurs under these conditions of chloride presence, high stresses and elevated temperatures. Pitting/Crevice Corrosion The 18-8 alloys have been used very successfully in fresh waters containing low levels of chloride ion. Although Type 304 tubing has been used in power plant surface condenser cooling water with as much as 1000 ppm chloride, this performance can only result from careful cleaning of the tubes during use and care to avoid stagnant waters from remaining in contact with the tube. Generally, 100 ppm chloride is considered to be the limit for the 18-8 alloys, particularly if crevices are present. Higher levels of chloride might cause crevice corrosion and pitting. For the more severe conditions of higher chloride levels, lower pH and/or higher temperatures, alloys with higher molybdenum content such as Type 316 or AL-6XN® alloy should be considered. Interestingly, Types 304 and 304L stainless steels pass the 100 hour, 5 percent neutral salt spray test (ASTM B117) with no rusting or staining of samples. However, Type 304 building exteriors exposed to salt mists from the ocean are prone to pitting and crevice corrosion accompanied by severe discoloration. The 18-8 alloys are not recommended for exposure to marine environments. The reader is invited to consult the Allegheny Ludlum Technical Center with questions concerning the suitability of the 18-8 alloys for specific environments.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Density: 0.285 lb/in3 (7.90 g/cm3) Modulus of Elasticity in Tension: 29 x 106 psi (200 GPa) Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: Temperature Range Coefficients °F °C in/in/°F cm/cm/°C 68 - 212 20 - 100 9.2 x 10-6 16.6 x 10-6 68 - 1600 20 - 870 11.0 x 10-6 19.8 x 10-6 Thermal Conductivity: The overall heat transfer coefficient of metals is determined by factors in addition to the thermal conductivity of the metal. The ability of the 18-8 stainless grades to maintain clean surfaces often allows better heat transfer than other metals having higher thermal conductivity. Consult the Allegheny Ludlum Technical Center (724-226-6300) for further information. Specific Heat: Magnetic Permeability The 18-8 alloys are generally non-magnetic in the annealed condition with magnetic permeability values typically less than 1.02 at 200H. As illustrated below, permeability values will vary with composition and will increase with cold work. Type 305 with the highest nickel content is the most stable of these austenitic alloys and will have the lowest permeability when cold worked. The following data are illustrative: 0 1.004 1.005 1.015 1.002 10 1.039 1.009 1.064 1.003 30 1.414 1.163 3.235 1.004 50 3.214 2.291 8.480 1.008 Magnetic Permeability 302 304 304L 305 Percent Cold Work Temperature Range °F °C Btu/hr·ft·°F W/m·K 212 100 9.4 16.3 932 500 12.4 21.4 °F °C Btu/lb/°F J/kg·K 32 - 212 0 - 100 0.12 500 ®Registered Trademark of Allegheny Ludlum Corporation Technical Data BLUE SHEET Data are typical and should not be construed as maximum or minimum values for specification or for final design. Data on any particular piece of material may vary from those shown herein. 5 Electrical Resistivity 68 20 28.3 72 212 100 30.7 78 392 200 33.8 86 752 400 39.4 100 1112 600 43.7 111 1472 800 47.6 121 1652 900 49.6 126 °F °C Temperature Microhm-in Microhm-cm Melting Range °F °C 2,550 - 2,590 1,399 - 1,421
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Room Temperature Mechanical Properties Minimum mechanical properties for annealed Types 302, 304, 304L and 305 austenitic stainless steel plate, sheet and strip as required by ASTM specifications A 240 and ASME specification SA-240 are shown below. Minimum Mechanical Properties Required Property by ASTM A 240, and ASME SA-240 302, 304 304L 305 0.2% Offset Yield Strength, psi MPa Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi MPa Percent Elongation in 2 in. or 51 mm Hardness, Max., Brinell RB 30,000 25,000 30,000 205 170 205 75,000 70,000 75,000 515 485 515 40.0 40.0 40.0 201 201 183 92 92 88 Data are typical and should not be construed as maximum or minimum values for specification or for final design. Data on any particular piece of material may vary from those shown herein. 6 Stainless Steel Visit our Website at Types 302, 304, 304L, 305 Effect of Cold Work Deformation of the 18-8 alloys at room or slightly elevated temperatures produces an increase in strength accompanied by a decrease in elongation value. A portion of this increase in strength is caused by partial transformation of austenite to martensite during deformation. As shown by the permeability data, the Type 302, 304 and 304L alloys are more prone to martensite formation than the Type 305 alloy. Strengthening during deformation is, therefore, more pronounced in the leaner compositions. Among the 18-8 alloys, Type 305 alloy with highest nickel content exhibits the least amount of work hardening. Typical data are shown below. Low and Elevated Temperature Properties Typical short time tensile property data for low and elevated temperatures are shown below. At temperatures of 1000°F (538°C) or higher, creep and stress rupture become considerations. Typical creep and stress rupture data are also shown below. -423 -253 100,000 690 250,000 1725 25 -320 -196 70,000 485 230,000 1585 35 -100 -79 50,000 345 150,000 1035 50 70 21 35,000 240 90,000 620 60 400 205 23,000 160 70,000 485 50 800 427 19,000 130 66,000 455 43 1200 650 15,500 105 48,000 330 34 1500 815 13,000 90 23,000 160 46 Test Temperature 0.2% Yield Strength Tensile Strength Elongation °F °C psi psi Percent in 2" or 51 mm (MPa) (MPa) Technical Data BLUE SHEET Data are typical and should not be construed as maximum or minimum values for specification or for final design. Data on any particular piece of material may vary from those shown herein. 7 Impact Resistance The annealed austenitic stainless steels maintain high impact resistance even at cryogenic temperatures, a property which, in combination with their low temperature strength and fabricability, has led to their use in handling liquified natural gas and other cryogenic environments. Typical Charpy V-notch impact data are shown below. typically about 35 percent of the tensile strength. Substantial variability in service results is experienced since additional variables influence fatigue strength. As examples – increased smoothness of surface improves strength, increased corrosivity of service environment decreases strength.
WELDING The austenitic stainless steels are considered to be the most weldable of the high-alloy steels and can be welded by all fusion and resistance welding processes. The Types 302, 304, 304L and 305 alloys are typical of the austenitic stainless steels. Two important considerations in producing weld joints in the austenitic stainless steels are: 1) preservation of corrosion resistance, and 2) avoidance of cracking. A temperature gradient is produced in the material being welded which ranges from above the melting temperature in the molten pool to ambient temperature at some distance from the weld. The higher the carbon level of the material being welded, the greater the likelihood that the welding thermal cycle will result in the chromium carbide precipitation which is detrimental to corrosion resistance. To provide material at the best level of corrosion resistance, low carbon material (Type 304L) should be used for material put in service in the welded condition. Alternately, full annealing dissolves the chromium carbide and restores a high level of corrosion resistance to the standard carbon content materials. Weld metal with a fully austenitic structure is more susceptible to cracking during the welding operation. For this reason, Types 302, 304, and 304L alloys are designed to resolidify with a small amount of ferrite to minimize cracking susceptibility. Type 305, however, contains virtually no ferrite on solidification and is more sensitive to hot cracking upon welding than the other alloys. If filler metal is required, Type 308 (20% Cr-11% Ni) is generally used. This enriched composition avoids martensite which might otherwise form in multipass welds. Chemistry is controlled to allow a small amount of ferrite in the deposit to limit hot cracking tendency. °F °C Temperature Charpy V-Notch Energy Absorbed Foot - pounds Joules 75 23 150 200 -320 -196 85 115 -425 -254 85 115 Fatigue Strength The fatigue strength or endurance limit is the maximum stress below which material is unlikely to fail in 10 million cycles in air environment. The fatigue strength for austenitic stainless steels, as a group, is Data are typical and should not be construed as maximum or minimum values for specification or for final design. Data on any particular piece of material may vary from those shown herein. 8 Stainless Steel Visit our Website at Types 302, 304, 304L, 305 Type 309 (23% Cr – 13.5% Ni) or nickel-base filler metals are used in joining the 18-8 austenitic alloys to carbon steel.
HEAT TREATMENT The austenitic stainless steels are heat treated to remove the effects of cold forming or to dissolve precipitated chromium carbides. The surest heat treatment to accomplish both requirements is the solution anneal which is conducted in the 1850°F to 2050°F range (1010°C to 1121°C). Cooling from the anneal temperature should be at sufficiently high rates through 1500-800°F (816°C – 427°C) to avoid reprecipitation of chromium carbides. These materials cannot be hardened by heat treatment.
CLEANING Despite their corrosion resistance, stainless steels need care in fabrication and use to maintain their surface appearance even under normal conditions of service. In welding, inert gas processes are used. Scale or slag that forms from welding processes is removed with a stainless steel wire brush. Normal carbon steel wire brushes will leave carbon steel particles in the surface which will eventually produce surface rusting. For more severe applications, welded areas should be treated with a descaling solution such as a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids and these should be subsequently washed off. For material exposed in inland, light industrial or milder service, minimum maintenance is required. Only sheltered areas need occasional washing with a stream of pressurized water. In heavy industrial areas, frequent washing is advisable to remove dirt deposits which might eventually cause corrosion and impair the surface appearance of the stainless steel. Stubborn spots and deposits like burned-on food can be removed by scrubbing with a nonabrasive cleaner and fiber brush, a sponge or pad of stainless steel wool. The stainless steel wool will leave a permanent mark on smooth stainless steel surfaces. Many of the uses of stainless steel involve cleaning or sterilizing on a regular basis. Equipment is cleaned with specially designed caustic soda, organic solvent or acid solutions such as phosphoric or sulfamic acid (strongly reducing acids such as hydrofluoric or hydrochloric may be harmful to these stainless steels). Cleaning solutions need to be drained and stainless steel surfaces rinsed thoroughly with fresh water. Design can aid cleanability. Equipment with rounded corners, fillets and absence of crevices facilitates cleaning as do smooth ground welds and polished surfaces.
SURFACE FINISHES A range of surface finishes is available. These are designated by a series of numbers. Number 1 Finish – is hot rolled annealed and descaled. It is available in plate and sheet and is used for functional applications where a smooth decorative finish is not important. Number 2D Finish – is a dull finish produced by cold rolling, annealing and descaling. This finish is favorable for the retention of lubricants in drawing or forming operations and is preferred for deep drawn and formed parts. Number 2B Finish – is a brighter finish than 2D. It is produced much like the 2D finish except that the final cold rolling is done with smooth polished rolls. This is a general purpose finish used for all but severe cold forming. Because it is smoother as produced, it is more readily polished than 1 or 2D finishes. Number 2BA Finish – is a very smooth finish produced by cold rolling and bright annealing. A light pass using highly polished rolls produces a glossy finish. A 2BA finish may be used for lightly formed applications where a glossy finish is desired in the as formed part. Polished finishes – a variety of ground finishes is available. Technical Data BLUE SHEET Data are typical and should not be construed as maximum or minimum values for specification or for final design. Data on any particular piece of material may vary from those shown herein. 9 Because special equipment or processes are used to develop these finishes, not all finishes are available in the range of products produced by Allegheny Ludlum. Surface finish requirements should be discussed with Allegheny Ludlum mill representatives.
SPECIFICATION COVERAGE Because of the extensive use of these austenitic stainless steels, and their broad specification coverage, the following list of specifications is representative, but not complete. In Section II, Part D of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Type 304 is assigned allowable stresses for a variety of product forms to maximum use temperatures of 1500°F (816°C). Type 304L coverage includes fewer product forms with lower allowable stresses to maximum use temperature of 800°F (426°C) while Types 302 and 305 have very limited coverage. All of the grades are accepted for use in food preparation and storage by the National Sanitation Foundation and for contact with dairy products by the Dairy and Food Industries Supply Association – Sanitary Standards Committee and are standard materials used in each industry. Similarly, Types 304 and 304L are standard materials of construction in the brewery industry.